Women’s breaking taboos in cyberculture: Tearing up patriarchal net through slash fiction?

IRANA ASTUTININGSIH

 

 

Gender representation: Women as objects?

Gender discourse in patriarchal culture frequently concerns with media representation of men and women regarding their bodies and social role. In one article, Wood (1994) says that there are three themes concerning media representation about gender: “First, women are underrepresented which implies that men are the cultural standard and women are unimportant or invisible. Second, men and women are portrayed in stereotyping ways that reflect and sustain socially endorsed views of gender. Third, depictions of relationships between men and women emphasize traditional roles and normalize violence against women”. Meanwhile, in Feminist Media Studies, Zoonen (1994) believes that the main element of patriarchy is the women display for the sake of public (men) gaze. This correlates with what Mulvey says about her concept known as “male gaze”. Mulvey believes that visual pleasure in mainstream cinema reproduces a structure of male looking and female “to-belooked-at-ness” (1975). The previously-mentioned assumptions underline that women representation by media is under the domination of patriarchal culture; positioning women as subordinated and underrepresented object. Through gender representation, media has power to strengthen the patriarchal value persisting and being considered as ‘true’ in society. Furthermore, media has power to produce an image on stereotyped gender identity with reference to the patriarchal culture dominance. This is due to the media power in producing such ‘reality’, like Grossberg has said that media “make meanings and organize them into various codes and systems, which implies that these code interpret reality; they make world meaningful and comprehensible” (2006: 194).

What have been assumed about women subordination and objectification refers more to media having power in producing cultural symbols which pose audience as passive text consumers. Throughout its history, however, new media such as the Internet provide broad opportunities to audience to actively participate, instead of passively consume text. The Internet as a new media has its unique characteristics; it is more democratic as it enables anyone to be actively involved by producing cultural text through creative process since it has less control and frequently operates out of control. The Internet as a product of culture is in fact, the producer of culture commonly known as “cyberculture or cyberspace” (Bell, 2001). Cyberculture providing more freedom and less control than offline world gives the same opportunities for everyone to actively participate in producing cultural symbols. In cyberculture, everyone can construct his/her expectation including breaking taboos in offline world, in which women are not the exception. In cyberculture, women are able to become the subject and speak about what they really expect, instead of being merely objectified.

This paper is based on a research conducted in 2012 about slash fictions, a genre of fan fiction uploaded on the Internet which tells about homosexual relationship and is written by fans (mostly women) of certain source text. The women writing slash fictions (Indonesian women in my research) are assumed to have potential to become subject in cyberculture, rather than being objectified in patriarchal (offline) world. In conducting the research, I start with a question about to what extent cyberculture provides women (slash authors) freedom in constructing their expectations through their slash fictions. More particularly, my question is about how liberated the women (slash authors) speak as subjects on the Internet about sexualities, the issues commonly considered taboos in patriarchal values as the dominant ideology persisting in (Indonesian) offline world.

Cyberculture and slash fiction: Being subjects through subcultural activities

In cultural studies context, study of the Internet is not solely focused on the technological aspect, but more on its socio cultural one. It doesn’t mean, however, that cultural studies exclude the technological aspect of the Internet at all, as cultural studies believe that technology is always cultural. One of cultural studies theorists paying close attention to the study of the Internet is Bell, who has put his conceptual definition about cyberculture as follows:

“… cyberculture is a way of thinking about how people and digital technologies interact, how we live together – so the suffix ‘culture’ is used in that elastic way that one of the founding fathers of British cultural studies, Raymond Williams (1976), uses it, to talk of ways of life (2007: 5)

In defining the term, Bell also refers to what Frow and Morris says about culture and puts it as “ways of life in cyberspace, or ways of life shaped by cyberspace, where cyberspace is a matrix of embedded matrix and representation” (2007:5). While the origin of the term ‘cyberculture’, as Bell has said, is obscure and uncertain, the word ‘cyberspace’ is conventionally believed to be originally created by Gibson in his cyberpunk novel Neuromancer. Gibson states cyberspace is “ … a consensual hallucination experienced daily by millions of legitimate operators. … A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system … “(1984: 67).  As cyberculture refers to ways of life in cyberspace, the phenomenon of slash fiction, I believe, relates to women’s (slash writers) ways of life in cyberspace. More particularly, what the slash writers do in cyberspace corresponds to what Bell explains as ‘cybersubculture’. In An Introduction to Cyberculture, David Bell explains what he calls as ‘subcultural or countercultural use of cyberspace’, which is divided into two groups: “…those that use cyberspace to advance their project, in the same way they might use other forms of communication; and those that signal an expressive relationship to the technology through subcultural activities … ” (2001: 163). Since in this paper the Internet is not only considered as a medium but more as an arena for women actively involved in the process of giving meaning to the source text they consume, the second thought of Bell about cybersubculture is considered more appropriate. Even though the term subculture is debatable regarding the prefix ‘sub’ which means ‘beneath’ and makes subculture regarded as the culture that lies ‘under’, subculture cannot, matter-of-factly, be considered as unimportant or non-standard culture. In Bell, it is said that subculture should be assumed as something subordinate, subaltern or subterranean, as explained by Bell that subculture is “… a term used to describe ‘groups of people who have something in common with each other … which distinguishes them in a significant way from other social groups’ …” (2001: 164). Furthermore, Thornton in Bell emphasizes that not every group that shares similar interest and stands opposition to other group can be considered subculture; “they must be doing some kind of cultural work with those interests and that opposition” (2001: 164). On account of such ‘cultural work’, Hebdige says in Subculture: the Meaning of Style that ‘cultural work’ “…is often codified through dress, ‘attitude’ and lifestyle, and circulated through the subculture’s own ‘micromedia’ output: music, fanzines, flyers and so on” (1979).

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Regarding cultural work mentioned by Hebdige, fanzine (fans magazine) is the pioneer of fan fiction recently booming in cyberspace. Slash fiction is one genre of fan fiction focusing on homosexual relationship between main male characters. For this reason, I see slash fiction as cultural work reflecting sub-ordinate culture in cyberspace. I regard the word ‘sub-ordinate’ in terms of slash fiction as a matter of subordination in two levels. First, it refers to women (slash authors) considered as subordinated gender and second, it relates to the subordination of same-sex relationship (illustrated in slash fiction) in patriarchal values as the dominant ideology. The internet users actively involved in the site of fan fiction not only use the Internet as a medium, but also do their fandom activities in it; expressing their minds by uploading their own fictions, collaborating and having interaction with other fans, and expressing their expectations. This corresponds to what Bell says about cybersubcultures as “those that signal an expressive relationship to the technology through subcultural activities” (2001: 163).

The scholars’ studies about fan fiction show that most fan fiction is written by heterosexual women. Regarding the less controlled and anonymous characteristic of the Internet, the question that may rise is: is it true that women write slash fictions? Isn’t it possible that anonymities in cyberculture enables slash writers to fake their identities as ‘real’ women? To answer this, it is necessary to have a brief review about the history of slash fiction. In the mid 70s, far before the fanfiction phenomena are booming in the Internet, the fans of Star Trek TV series published fanzine (fans magazine) in limited number and distributed it among fans. The first slash fiction in the fanzine was written by a heterosexual woman who told about homosexual relationship between Kirk and Spock, the major characters in Star Trek, who were originally heterosexuals. In Textual Poachers, Jenkins depicts in detail how the women fans of Star Trek illustrate homosexuality between Kirk and Spock. He claims that fans write fan fiction out of a combination of fascination and frustration with their favorite media products. Furthermore, he believes that fans are not passive consumers, but active producers and manipulators of meanings (1992). Jenkins’ writing is based on his ethnographical research for years which proves that what has been said about heterosexual women being the slash writers is not a mere assumption.

Furthermore, Derecho’s assumption about fan fiction corresponds to what Jenkins has put by saying that fan fiction is “the literature of the subordinate, because most fan fiction authors are women responding to media products that, for the most part, are characterized by an underrepresentation of women” (2006: 71). Regarding ‘more freedom’ cyberculture offer compared to offline world, the slash writers attempts to express their dissatisfaction to media text dominated by patriarchal values. They do subcultural activities by uploading their cultural work in forms of slash fictions; constructing their expectation unfulfilled by patriarchal media text, and hence, becoming the subject in cyberculture. Providing opportunities for women to be the subject by creating stories about homosexualites between main male characters, cyberculture enables the women to have power over men, while in offline world dominated by patriarchal values they are frequently underrepresented and objectified.

Women’s attempts to depict homosexual relationship between main male characters in slash fictions are interesting due to their position as ‘second class gender’ in patriarchal culture and the taboos they have to face in the hierarchy of system. In patriarchal world with its dominant ideology, particularly in Indonesia, the matter of sex cannot be separated from the discourse of gender dichotomy that poses men as subject and women as object of sex. Since men are the subject, it is believed that men are to be aggressive while the women are the otherwise. Furthermore, “the women’s sexual satisfactions are valued as long as they satisfy men’s sexual needs” (Munti, 2005: 37). Researches have been conducted regarding to female potential as the subject of sex; one of which is conducted by Warianto about a rubric of sexuality in Cosmopolitan Indonesia magazine. The interesting findings Warianto has shown in her research is that despite being considered as a pioneer magazine which tries to liberate women from patriarchal values, it is concluded that the construction of gender role regarding sexualities in the magazine is still under the dominance of patriarchal values:

‘objectifying’ women as those who are to satisfy men’s sexualities. Since women are the objects of sex, women being initiative in sexual acitivies is considred taboo; sex become more about their ‘service’ towards men rather than pleasure and attempt to fulfill their own needs. One of Indonesian cinemas representing women’s attempt to be liberated from patriarchal value is entitled Perempuan Berkalung Sorban, which tells about the life of awoman who questions her right to be initiative in sexual actitivies, and gets answer from her teacher that an initiative woman must be a bad woman (Bramantyo: 2009).

Based on previous elaboration about cyberculture, slash fiction, and sexual taboos for women, I believe cyberculture provides wide opportunities for women to produce a counter discourse towards the dominant ideology. In other words, cyberculture enables them to express their resistance in two levels: first, the resistance towards women’s objectification in patriarchal culture and second, the resistance toward mainstream values believing that heterosexual relationship is the ‘right’ one, all of which is represented through their cultural activities in cyberspace.

The Method

As stated before, this paper writing is based on previous research in 2012 about slash fictions written by several Indonesian women. They uploaded their fictions on www.fanfiction.net, the biggest site of fan fiction today. Millions of non-professional writers uploaded their fictions on the site, and those fictions are written in various languages. As the main resource of data, I chose several slash fictions written by Indonesian women who wrote their fiction in Indonesian language. At the first step, textual analysis was done referring to two slash fictions entitled More Than Words (2011) and Another Time Another Attitude (2010). The two fictions were written by two Indonesian women pen-named Confeito and Mizore Kibishi. The analysis was done not only based on the fictions, but also based on the author’s note commonly found in the end of the fictions. Author’s note sometimes contains the author’s comments on the story they have written, but sometimes it is a means of an author to address their readers. By analyzing the two texts, it expected to figure out how the two women construct their expectations concerning sexualities represented through their main characters’ physical attraction and sexual activities. Furthermore, since the research was conducted to figure out how the Internet provides them freedom to speak as subjects, more particularly to speak about sexuality as an issue considered ‘taboo’ for women to speak frankly in patriarchal value, online interview with Confeito and Mizore was also conducted. In conducting the interview, the two women were initially sent personal message provided in www.fanfiction.net to ask for their agreement as interviewees. The interview was conducted online using chatting facilities on the Internet.

Female gaze and women’s version of male sexualities

Slash fiction, being very popular among heterosexual women, is commonly uploaded in personal weblog or particular websites. Considered as the biggest fan fiction site, www.fanfcition.net contains millions of fan fictions written in various languages. In one of her writings, a slash writer pen-named Confeito, depicts the homosexual relationship between two main characters in Harry Potter: Tom Riddle and Harry Potter. Her attempt to exploit male’s body is seen in the following quotes of slash fiction:

“… Harry bisa dikatakan sebagai cowok cantik. (They say Harry is a beautiful boy)… Dengan wajah berbentuk hati, iris mata indah hijau zamrud, dan bibir merah merekah yang menantang siapapun untuk menciumnya.(with a heartshaped face, beautiful green eyes and red lips challenging everyone to kiss him)… (Confeito: 2011)

The foregoing quotes show how Harry’s physical appearance is illustrated not only through its physical attraction but also its sensuality. The phrase ‘challenging everyone to kiss him’ emphasizes such sensuality. Like what is commonly seen in patriarchal media text on women’s physical exploitation, Confeito’s illustration in her slash is obviously a matter of male’s physical exploitation through the character of Harry. Further depiction of homosexualities between Tom and Harry is illustrated by Confeito in the followings:

“…. Jari-jari Tom berlari meraba tubuh Harry. (Tom’s fingers ran through Harry’s body).

… Dalam posisi terikat, dia tersenyum setengah malu-setengah genit pada Tom. (Being tied, he smiled timidly, but seductively, to Tom).

‘Then punish me, Master.’

Sorotan mata Tom berubah menjadi sorotan predator yang mengincar mangsanya. Dia tanpa segan lalu meremas pantat Harry keras, membungkam desahan Harry dengan ciuman ganas. (Tom’s eyesight turns predatory ready to attack its preys. He squeezed Harry’s bosom hard, silenced Harry’s moan with fierce kiss)

… Harry hanya bisa mengangguk, entah menangkap perkataan Tom atau tidak. (All Harry could do is nodding, either he understood what Tom was saying or not)

…Dia akhirnya menyerahkan diri pada dominasi kuat Tom. Berada sepenuhnya pada kuasa si laki-laki bermata hijau turquoise” (He finally surrendered to Toms’domination. Being totally dominated by the man with green turquoise eyes). (Confeito: 2011).

The diction chosen to describe Harry and Tom’s sexual activities emphasizes Harry’s position as a passive object. During their intimacy, Harry is described in tied position saying ‘Punish me, Master’. The illustration of Harry’s being tied and the words ‘punish’, master ‘surrender’ and ‘domination’ implies to the unequal power relation between the couple. Harry Potter is placed as a dominated object, and even asks for the domination himself. Confeito also illustrates Harry as a ‘prey’ and uses the word ‘predatory’, which also underlines the domination over Harry. In sum, Harry is portrayed as a sexual object being dominated by his lover.

What Confeito describes in her slash initially leads me to ponder her attempt in objectifying male’s body through the portrayal of Harry. The voyeurism persisting in slash fiction is voyeurism over male’s body through his body exploitation and sexual activities. In cyberspace, not only is the male body exploited by the women authors of slash, but also consumed by women readers of slash fiction. This proves that cyberculture enables female gaze to exist. Due to the female gaze in cyber space, it can be said that Mulvey’s concept about ‘male gaze’ in media texts as well as what Hayles says about ‘masculinitst bias’ in virtual reality are to be reconsidered. The concept of masculinits bias, as Hayles states, corresponds to the logic of capitalist market with its masculine characteristic: the desire to have autonomy and control (Trend: 2001). What Hayles states about masculinits bias, is perhaps, more compatible to the media text representing  dominant ideology that places women as objectified gender class. In terms of slash fiction, which represents women’s expectation as their respond toward patriarchal values, it is obvious that the concept of ‘male gaze’ and ‘masculinist bias’ becomes irrelevant. On account of women slash authors, masculinist bias in cyberspace is potential to transform into ‘feminist bias’.

slash-fiction-2

In describing the sexual activities between two male characters, it is obvious that Confeito doesn’t attempt to be ‘gentle’ or ‘romantic’. Instead, she depicts the sexual activities in a ‘direct’ language with reference to domination and power over Harry. This shows how Confeito really tries to liberate herself from the sexual taboos she has to face in offline world. As a subject in cyberculture, she ignores the rules in offline world by constructing her expectation about sex; ‘talking’ about sex using ‘direct’ language. However, it seems more interesting to me as I continue reading the slash fiction which is closed by Confeito’s note: *sigh* Yep, I know I’m pervert. Shush *blushing* (2011). This note shows Confeito’s ambivalence. Despite using direct language in her slash, Confeito closes her story by expressing her feeling of embarrassment as she calls herself a ‘pervert’. Confeito’s saying of being pervert basically represents her limitation in being a ‘real subject’ in cyberculture. In other words, this shows that Confeito does not totally liberate herself from sexual taboos persisting in patriarchal culture. With regards to homosexualities, I was interested to know more about how Confeito faces challenges in offline world concerning such issue.

Being involved as a reader in www.fanfiction.net as well as a researcher on slash fictions in 2012,  I managed to make online interview with her. The following quotes show Confeito’s  response  to my questions about whether or not she would be interested in publishing her stories about homosexualities in offline world:

Tidak. Indonesia bukanlah negara yang menerima slash dengan suka rela. Masyarakat kita sebagian besar menganggap slash adalah suatu hubungan yang seharusnya tidak boleh dijalani. Saya sebagai warga negara Indonesia harus tahu diri dan menerima hal ini pada batasan tertentu, ie saya hanya akan menulis cerita slash di internet (lebih tepatnya di FFn), dimana orang-orang yang membacanya berkemungkinan besar adalah penggemar slash. Boleh dikatakan, saya ambil jalan amannya saja. (I won’t. Slash is not kindly accepted in Indonesia. Most people consider relationship in slash the wrong thing. Being an Indonesian, I really have to know my position. I will go on with this idea of slash relationship in limited area, in the internet, whose readers are also the fans of slash. Let me put it briefly: I want to play safe in this ‘slash matter’. (online interview, March 2012)

Being a part of society who believes that homosexuality is not acceptable, Confeito decides to keep ‘living in a secure world’, where people are more tolerable to the idea. Cyberspace is an ‘ideal’ place for Confeito in playing with her fantasies, though from the previous elaboration it is obvious that she cannot totally liberate herself from the patriarchal values persisting in offline world. Further analysis on Confeito’s story reveals more about her ambivalence in being a ‘subject’. The character of Harry, being a sexual object, is obviously dependent on the character of Tom, which is also the main character in her slash. This proves that despite exploiting Harry’s body, Confeito also poses male’s dominance through her characterization of Tom who has power over Harry. It can be said that as a ‘subject’, Confeito maintains patriarchal values which pose men as the subject of sex, as portrayed through Tom in her slash fiction.

When Confeito illustrates sexual activities between male characters using direct language, Mizore depicts it differently, as seen in the following quotations:

‘Harry, aku selalu menunggu saat ini datang. Aku selalu menunggumu memelukku dan menenangkanku seperti ini…. (Harry, I’ve been waiting for this moment to come. I’ve been waiting for you to hold me and comfort me like this…).

… Harry merasa jantungnya berdebar kencang ketika Draco mengungkapkan lagi rahasia perasaannya. Ia memejamkan mata pelan ketika mulai memasuki tubuh pria yang sudah lama ia cintai.(Harry felt his heart beating fast as Draco expressed his true feeling. He closed his eyes while getting into Draco, the man he had always loved for ages).

…. ‘Yah, aku disini Draco. Aku mencintaimu, sayang.’ Harry memeluk erat Draco dan mencium bibirnya lembut. ‘Aku mencintaimu sejak lama.’ … ( I am here, Draco. I love you, honey. Harry hold Draco tight and kissed him gently. ‘I’ve loved you since ages ago…’) (Mizore: 2010).

It is interesting to discuss that in describing the sexual intercourse between Harry and Draco, Mizore refers to a gentle, unhurried attitude which emphasizes more on love expression. In other words, Mizore does not construct her idea about sexual activities with reference to domination or power. It is obvious that the sexual activities between Harry and Draco is not focused on technical matter related to body per se; it focuses on their spiritual intimacy expressed as ‘love’ between them instead. Sex is not, in Mizore’s slash, a matter of sole penetration, but more about their ways in expressing the deepest feeling of love. Mizore is more interested in illustrating emotional attachment between Harry and Draco. When patriarchal media texts commonly pinpoint the notion that sex is closely related to power and conquest, as Seidler has put that sex is a means of proving men’s masculinities in Rediscovering Masculinities (1998), Mizore as a subject in cyberspace has a different view through her slash fiction. Sex in Mizore’s notion is focused more on emotional attachment between lovers. Sexualities in Mizore’s expectation is not ‘autonomous’, as Seidler (1998) says, which ignores the emotional aspects. In Mizore’s slash, despite being engaged in sexual intercourse, the two male characters’ emotional attachment is considered more important than sexual intercourse per se. Sexual activities in Mizore’s slash does not refer to the belief about sex for the sake of power and conquest.

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The previous elaboration on the quotes of two slash fictions shows that the women authors have uniqueness in constructing their idea about sexualities. When Confeito is more direct and aggressive in illustrating the sexual activities, Mizore is the otherwise. Due to this distinction between the two authors, further question may rise. Regarding their contrastive illustration on sex, do the two women represent contrastive ideas regarding the dominant ideology? If Confeito is unable to totally liberate herself from patriarchal values, does it mean that Mizore is more ‘successful’ in her attempt of liberation? Does it mean that, being gentle in portraying the main characters’ intercourse in her slash, unlike pornography media text which is, as Dowkins (in Seidler, 1998) believes, the perfect example of male’s domination over female, Mizore represent her counter idea towards the dominant ideology?

To answer this question, it is important to know more about Mizore’s subcultural activities in cyberspace. As a slash author, Mizore has two accounts in facebook. One account is specifically made for her fans as a slash author, which disguises her real name. The following shows our conversation about her reason of using a disguised name in one of her facebook accounts:

Q: ada alasan mengapa akun FB untuk pembaca fanfic disendirikan? (Are there any reasons why you created a specific account for slash readers?)

A: karena bahasanya membahayakan, hehehe. Akun FB saya yang asli banyak teman yang baik-baik sih, saya tidak mau mereka menjadi sesat, hoho… (because the language (of my slash) is dangerous… I have a lot of friends, who are good people, and I certainly don’t want them to be deviants… (online interview, March 2012).

The illustration of sexual activities in Mizore’s slash is far from being ‘direct’ and ‘aggressive’. Nevertheless, Mizore finds it necessary to make a special account for her slash readers in facebook due to the language she considers ‘dangerous’. On the other hand, Mizore believes that all her friends in her ‘real person’ account are ‘good people’ whom she doesn’t want to be deviant. This implies that she considers the subcultural activities she has been doing in the internet morally wrong in ‘real life’. In deeper level, her subcultural activities concerning slash fiction will keep her from being ‘a good woman in real life’. Mizore’s attempt to reveal herself as ‘a good woman’ makes her make two accounts concurrently; one (with her disguised name) for her slash readers and the other with her real name for her friends in ‘real world’. Mizore chooses to be a ‘good woman’ in offline world by hiding herself as a slash author.

Regarding the slash fictions and cyberculture, it is obvious that the slash authors attempt to escape from dominant ideology with its patriarchal values in two levels: first, the women attempt to get involved in ‘taboo area’; constructing their ideas through the depiction of sexual activities between main male characters in slash fiction. It implies that cyberculture enables them to have control and power over men and thus, become the subject in terms of sexualities. Secondly, cyberspace paves the way to the women authors of slash to construct gender ideology which is ‘liberated’ from the hetero-normative values in dominant ideology. It is furthermore seen, however, the slash women authors seem to play in the position of ‘inbetween-ness’. As has been previously elaborated, they choose to ‘remain safe’ by disguising themselves as ‘slash women’ and thus, maintain the dominant ideology regarding sexual activities; which put them as objectified gender class with sexual taboos to avoid. In this point, it is obvious that being actively engaged in subcultural activities as subjects, they cannot, however, become the ‘real subject’ totally liberated from dominant ideology with its patriarchal values. While previously I see the potential of cyberspace’s masculinits bias to transform into ‘feminist bias’, in this context the cyberspace seems to lose its ‘feminist spirit’ due to its inability to totally liberate the women from dominant ideology with its patriarchal values.

Conclusion

As a new media, internet enables anyone to be actively engaged in cultural text production, instead of merely become passive text consumers. Cyberculture eases people to do what is considered ‘taboos’ in offline world. In terms of slash fiction, women are potential to break the taboos they face in offline world by doing subcultural activities in cyberspace; constructing their ideas about male sexualities in cyberspace and hence, become the subject.

Cyberculture enables ‘female gaze’ to exist as the women slash authors have power and control over the objectified males as the main characters, which are also objectified by slash readers most of whom are heterosexual women. In slash, the women as slash authors are able to show their resistance toward dominant ideology: their resistance toward women objectification and their resistance toward the hetero-normative relationship. However, their subcultural acitivies in cyberspace cannot totally liberate them from the dominant ideology with its patriarchal values.

Keterangan:

Tulisan ini diterbitkan dalam Official Proceeding International Conference on Language, Literature and Cultural Studies (2013), Burapha University, Thailand.

References

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Bell,David. 2007. Cyberculture Theorists. USA: Routledge.

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Derecho, Abigail. 2006. “Archontic Literature: A Definition, a History and Several Theories of Fan Fiction”. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays. Ed Karen Hellekson & Kristin Busse. London: McFarland & Company.

Gibson, William. 1984. Neuromancer. London: Grafton.

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Jenkins, Henry. 1992. Textual Poachers. New York: Routledge.

Liesbet, Zoonen Van. 1994. Feminist Media Studies. London: Sage.

Mizore Kibishi. 2010. Another Time and Another Attitude. http://www.fanfiction.net/s/6600192/1/Another_Time_and_Another_Attitude (accessed Agustus 2011).

Mulvey, Laura. 1975. Visual Pleasure and Narrative C inema. Screen 16.3, Autumn 1975, 6-18.

Munti, Ratna Batara. 2005. Demokrasi Keintiman Seksualitas di Era Global.Yogyakarta: Lkis.

Seidler, Victor J. 1989. Rediscovering Masculinity. London: Routledge.

Warianto, Vivi Natalia. 2011. Konstruksi Peran Gender dalam Rubrik Seks di Majalah Cosmopolitan dan Femina. Surabaya: Universitas Kristen Petra.

Wood, Julia T. 1994. Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender. http://www.udel.edu/comm245/readings/GenderedMedia.pdf. (Accessed 12 Januari 2012)

Gambar cover diunduh dari: http://www.dailydot.com/tags/slash/

Gambar isi 1 diunduh dari: http://nordenergi.org/org-harry-potter-fanfiction-drarry-rated-m

Gambar isi 2 diunduh dari: http://www.camillereads.com/2009/10/harry-and-draco-my-favorite-harry.html

Gambar isi 3 diunduh dari: http://nordenergi.org/org-harry-potter-fanfiction-crossover-slash

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About Irana Astutiningsih 5 Articles
IRANA ASTUTININGSIH adalah peneliti di Matatimoer Institute dan pengajar di Jurusan Sastra Inggris Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Jember.

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